Towards a Theory of Egypt’s God-Kings Chronology

I will be presenting a paper at the Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt (the major North American Egyptological scholars organization) during the week of April 22nd, 2021. The schedule isn’t formalized yet. The title is Towards a Theory of Egypt’s God-Kings Chronology, which is based on my research for the second volume of Genesis Chronology and Egyptian King-Lists. The paper will only be dealing with portions of the Egyptian side of the data. Below is a copy of the Abstract. For information about the conference, go here. After the conference, I’ll post a link to the paper.

Ancient Egypt’s only known multi-dynasty chronologies, the Turin Canon of Kings (c. 12th century B.C.E.) and Manetho’s Aegyptiaca (c. 3rd century B.C.E.), indicate that the First Dynasty was preceded by a long list of god-kings with assigned lengths of reign. Unfortunately, the Turin Canon papyrus is very badly damaged in this section and many of the god names and much of the associated chronology are either damaged or missing. As to Manetho’s history, his original text is lost and what we know about this time frame was preserved in wildly inconsistent versions preserved by several Christian scribes several centuries later who took great liberties with Manetho’s chronology and who explained why they made many changes to what Manetho wrote.

This paper introduces the theory that behind these two chronological texts stands a systematic unfolding of the Theban Creation theology with lengths of reign based on solar, lunar and stellar cycles,  and that this data can be recovered by tracing error patterns in the Manetho sources. As an introduction to the thesis, this paper will focus on the Manetho texts and (1) outline several arithmetic errors made by the scribes who passed on the manuscripts, (2) demonstrate several interpretive errors by the redactors that led to erroneous data being used in the various Manetho sources, and (3) offer one major new insight as to what the redactors misunderstood, which, when placed in context, will provide the key to unlocking the chronological and sequential arrays and explain the various inconsistencies in the Manetho sources.

The Judicial System of Palestine [under the British Mandate c. 1938]

My father, Emanuel Greenberg, a seventh generation native born Israeli, was born in Jerusalem while it was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. He grew up in the United States but on his thirteenth birthday he spent a year back at his birth place. He studied law at NYU and after getting the basic law school LLB degree (which degree has been mostly replaced nowadays by the JD degree, Juris Doctor,) he continued in the post-graduate doctoral program in law and also received an LLD degree. It was his intent at the time to go back to Jerusalem and practice law there but when he married my mother, the plan changed.

After he passed away several years ago, I rooted about his effects and found an essay he wrote on the Palestine judicial system under the British Mandate. It appears to be a preliminary draft prepared for submission while in law school. While not directly biblical in content, it does fit into the historical portion of this site’s tile. I thought its discussion of how the British government managed to handle conflicting legal problems among Jews, Arabs, Brits and foreigners was quite interesting and I thought it might be something visitors to this site might also find of value. So I scanned it and am posting it here for those who would like to read it. The original title was Judicial System of Palestine, and I added “under the British Mandate c. 1938” for context, which would have been obvious at the time.

Why you should subscribe to Bible, Myth, and History

On this site, my goal is to publish serious biblical scholarship within the mainstream framework but which offers a different perspective on what the evidence shows. I also write articles for publication, present papers at conferences, and, most importantly to me, I write books. This means that I don’t have time to publish articles in clockwork fashion, like one article a day or every week. There will often be unintended delays of weeks before a new post is published. So, if you would like to stay current with my work without constantly checking to see if I have posted something new, you can subscribe to the site and receive an email when something is posted, along with information on the post. I use a standard plug-in to manage the subscriptions and as far as I know, the only person who can use the names on the list is me. And anything I have to say to you will be posted here. So, you shouldn’t receive any notifications other than those for new posts. In order to subscribe just look for the subscription box and enter your email. It will appear in different places depending on the viewing device you use.

John 11:45-54: The Key to John’s Chronological and Narrative Structure

That John’s chronology and narrative structure differs from that in the synoptic gospels is well-recognized by New Testament scholars but not satisfactorily explained. A few years ago, I presented a paper at the annual meeting of the Mid-Atlantic Chapter of the Society of Biblical Literature offering a new theory for why John’s gospel is so different from the others. I have now placed a copy of the paper on this site, accessible from either the Abstracts or Writings pages. You can read it from this link.

The topic is far more complex than could be fully presented in a brief time slot and when I finish the current book I am working on, the second volume of Genesis Chronology and Egyptian King-Lists, my next book will fully examine the issues raised in this paper. There is also a more expansive discussion of these issues in my The Case for a Proto-Gospel.

Tweaking the site a bit

I’ve made a couple of design changes to the site. The Menu page previously titled Selected Writings has been changed to Abstracts. The content remains the same and I have found a few more articles that I will add down the road. Not to be too confusing but I have added a new page called Writings. This page is a simple listing of all of my writings in (mostly) one place. It includes sections for Books, Papers Presented in Academic Forums, and Articles Published in Academic Forums, with links for each of the items mentioned. There are a couple of items listed that haven’t been linked yet and still need to be uploaded.

Was Mary the Name of Jesus’ Mother? A Source-Critical Perspective

I previously mentioned the publication at the Bible and Interpretation site of my essay titled “Was Mary the Name of Jesus’ Mother: A Source Critical Perspective.” I am now making it available here and through a link on my Selected Writings page. Here is the opening paragraph. Click on the link to read the rest of the article.

If we had no reliable written sources mentioning the name of Jesus’ mother, a good guess would be Mary. Statistically, it was one of the most popular, if not the most popular, name for Jewish women in the first century. In the Christian scriptures, more women have the name Mary than any other name. The question I wish to raise here is whether we have any reliable written evidence that Mary was the name of Jesus’ mother. Click here to read the rest

Site Upgrade Completed

I have completed the site upgrade. Not only does the site have a more attractive new look, I have added a substantial amount of content.

My Book Catalogue Page contains links to each of my books, with descriptive information about each, including in most cases, excerpts from the books.

The Selected Writings Page lists several articles I have written, including abstracts and links to the articles. More articles will be posted in the near future but what is currently there should hold you for a while.

The Selected Posts Page provides a list of links to some of my past posts that discuss assorted academic problems with Jewish and Christian scriptures.

On the Home Page Sidebar I will occasionally feature links to one of my books,, article and past posts.

I clicked around, and everything appears to be in good shape, but if you come across any glitches, please use the contact form to let me know.

At the moment, there appears to be a problem with subscriber notifications. I hope that will be cleared up shortly. But if you subscribe to this site and receive notice of this post, please let me know.

This upgrade has imported all of the important material from my other Web Site on Bible, Myth and History and I will no longer maintain it. That site has been reachable through the use of the domain. I will soon change the pointer so that it will take you to this site instead, giving you a shorter address to input into your browser.

If you are not already a subscriber, I hope you will become one by using the subscriber box. Subscribers will receive an email whenever I add a new post, saving you the trouble of having to keep checking in to see what’s new.